Knowledge of lighting fixtures classification of lighting fixtures there are many classification methods of lighting fixtures, such as classification by purpose, classification by luminous flux distribution proportion recommended by CIE, classification by dust-proof, moisture-proof, anti electric shock grade, etc. Among them, the classification by use has been described in the sub volume of the consumer guide, and the other classification methods will be described in this sub volume· According to the classification of lamps recommended by the International Commission on lighting (CIE) (indoor lighting) according to the recommendation of the International Commission on lighting (CIE), lamps are divided into five categories according to the proportion of luminous flux in the upper and lower space: direct type, semi direct type, full diffuse type (including direct indirect type with little light in the horizontal direction), semi indirect type and indirect type.
(1) Direct lighting luminaire: most of the luminous flux of such lamps (90-100%) is directly projected below, so the utilization rate of luminous flux of lamps is the highest.
(2) Most of the luminous flux (60-90%) of semi direct lighting luminaire lamps will be directed to the lower hemisphere space, and a small part will be directed to the upper part. The component directed to the upper part will reduce the hardness of the shadow generated by the lighting environment and improve the brightness ratio of each surface. (3) The upward and downward luminous flux of diffuse or direct indirect lamps is almost the same (accounting for 40% - 60% respectively). The most common is opal glass spherical lampshade, and other closed lampshades with diffuse light transmission in various shapes also have similar light distribution. This kind of lamps and lanterns throw light evenly in all directions, so the utilization rate of luminous flux is low. (4) The downward luminous flux of semi indirect lighting luminaire lamps accounts for 10% - 40%. Its downward component is often only used to produce brightness commensurate with the ceiling. Excessive or improper distribution of this component will also produce some defects such as direct or indirect glare. The translucent cover with the upper opening belongs to this category. They are mainly used as architectural decoration lighting. Because most of the light is cast on the ceiling and upper wall, the indoor indirect light is increased, and the light is more soft and pleasant.
(5) A small part of the luminous flux (less than 10%) of the indirect lighting luminaire is downward. When well designed, all ceilings become a lighting source to achieve a soft and shadow free lighting effect. As the downward light flux of lamps is very small, as long as the layout is reasonable, the direct glare and reflected glare are very small. The luminous flux utilization rate of such lamps is lower than that of the previous four.
The term luminaire efficiency refers to the ratio of the total light flux output by the luminaire to the total light flux emitted by all light sources in the luminaire, which is generally expressed as a percentage. The light distribution or distribution of luminous intensity of lamps is represented by curves or tables. The light output intensity distribution value of lamps in all directions of space is called the light distribution curve or light distribution curve of lamps, which is an important characteristic parameter of lamps· Glare in a lighting environment, when the brightness of a light source or object is much greater than the brightness adapted by the eyes, people will have the feeling of glare or dazzling. This phenomenon is called glare. Glare can cause discomfort or / and reduced visibility. The former is called discomfort glare and the latter is called disability glare. Lighting - the eyes of home. If there are no lamps in the family, it is just like people without eyes. Families without eyes can only live in the dark, so the position of lamps in the family is very important.
Nowadays, people call lighting fixtures as lighting. From the appellation, people can see that lamps are not only used for lighting, but also used to decorate rooms. Choosing lighting from a scientific perspective is of great significance to human life. It not only ensures the normal progress of people's daily life, culture and entertainment and housework, but also integrates lamps with interior decoration with their beautiful shape, color, pattern and artistic effect, so as to bring a peaceful and comfortable atmosphere to family life. At present, the lamps and lanterns market is extremely rich in varieties, with ever-changing shapes and performance. The beauty of lamps is very important. Lamps with beautiful color and good shape can bring people a sense of pleasure.
As the lighting fixtures are an organic part of the whole room decoration, its style, material and illumination should be unified with the indoor function and decoration style, and the lighting fixtures should be purchased according to this principle. Its ultimate purpose is to make all kinds of light receiving objects around the lamp evenly distributed, so that people's visual function can play a good role. Because people's line of sight is not fixed, it often goes from one to another. If the brightness distribution of indoor decorative lighting lamps is too large, it may bring a brilliant sense of brightness to people in a short time and cause visual fatigue in a long time. Therefore, we should scientifically purchase lighting lamps according to the use functions of various parts of the room. General residence has living room, study, living room, bedroom, kitchen, bathroom and lobby. Due to their different functions, the light source required is also different. Different lamps should be selected according to different room functions. The configuration of lamps and lanterns in the living room should be conducive to creating a stable, generous, warm and warm environment, so that guests can feel at home. Generally, a single head or multi head chandelier can be installed in the center of the room as the main lamp.
If there are banner calligraphy and painting on the wall behind the sofa, two wall lamps of appropriate size can be installed on both sides of the calligraphy and painting, and a floor lamp can be placed beside the sofa. The arrangement of such lamps and lanterns is not only stable and generous, but also the light source can be selected according to different needs. They can be put in the first place, full of brightness in the room, or put in a single lamp alone to promote the old. The study is a place for family members to work and study, which requires high lighting. General work and study lighting can adopt lamps with local lighting, and incandescent lamps with high power are better. The main lighting adopts single fork chandelier and fluorescent lamp, and the location is not necessarily in the center, which can be determined according to the specific indoor conditions. The shape and style of lamps should not be too gorgeous. It is better to be elegant, meaningful and beautiful, so as to create a quiet and quiet comfortable environment for people to read. A simple bedroom is a place for people to sleep and rest. It should give people a sense of quiet and leisure, and avoid dazzling light and dazzling lamp shapes. A hanging main lamp can be installed at the appropriate position in the room, and a bedside wall lamp can be installed at the head of the bed.
If the bedroom is also used for multiple purposes, a ceiling fluorescent lamp can be installed in the center of the room, and two wall lamps can be installed where the illumination needs to be increased. These lamps are controlled by switches respectively to meet different needs. The dining room is the place where people eat, and the table requires horizontal illumination. Therefore, it is appropriate to select lamps or pull-down lamps with strong downward direct illumination, so that the pull-down height is 600-700 mm above the table. The lamps are generally located directly above the table. In order to increase appetite, incandescent lamps with a capacity of more than 60 watts are used. Sometimes the restaurant also has other functions, so it needs to have multiple sockets as the power supply of table lamp and floor lamp. The kitchen is a place for cooking and washing tableware. Generally, the area is small. Most of them use the general lighting on the ceiling, and the capacity is between 25-40 watts. Modern kitchens are equipped with range hoods above the stove, generally with 25-40 watt lamps, which greatly improves the illumination above the stove. Modern kitchens also have many cabinets above the cooking ranges for cutting vegetables and preparing meals. Local lighting lamps can be installed under these cabinets to increase the illumination of the console. The toilet shall adopt bright and soft lamps, which shall have the functions of moisture-proof and not easy to rust, and the light source shall adopt incandescent lamps with high color rendering index. When the wall lamp is used, the lamp shall be installed on the wall perpendicular to the curtain to avoid reflecting the shadow on the window. When using the ceiling lamp, avoid installing it on the bathtub directly shrouded by steam. The power of wall lamp or ceiling lamp should be 40-60 watts.
Lighting installation shall comply with the lighting principle. Room lighting is not just to illuminate the room, but to do according to certain principles and requirements, so as to have good decorative effect and reflect the lighting function. First, lighting must ensure the realization of different lighting required for various activities. No matter what kind of activities, such as writing, playing games, resting, receiving guests, etc., there should be corresponding lamps to play a role. This lighting should be scientific light distribution, so that people do not feel tired, which is not only conducive to eye health, but also save electricity. Second, lighting should be able to set off the room more beautiful. The illumination of light should take into account the outline, level and main image of indoor objects. For some special furnishings, such as ornaments, paintings, carpets, vases, fish tanks, etc., it should also reflect or even beautify their colors. Third, lighting should be reliable and safe. Electric leakage, fire and other phenomena are not allowed for lamps. They should be on as soon as they are turned on and off as soon as they are turned off. The position of the light source in lighting is important, but the key to choosing this position is what you want the light source to illuminate. The first is people. The most important part of people is the face. The light projected from different angles will make people's face have different expression effects. If people stand directly under a chandelier, the direct downward lighting will make the face indifferent and serious.
If a light shines on the face from bottom to top, it will be worse. The face will become terrible and even ferocious. Therefore, in the living room, dining room and sofa group where people meet frequently, direct upward or downward lighting cannot be adopted. If the side shot direct illumination is adopted, that is, the light is projected from the top of the side, which will make the face contour rich and clear; If diffuse lamps are used and scattered light is used to project the face, a clear and amiable image will be obtained. The second is to illuminate the furniture, which depends on what effect you want to achieve. If it is a brand-new combination furniture, its color and outline should be highlighted. Multi light source lighting can be used to achieve the effect of few shadow parts of the furniture. As an integral part of decoration, lighting must arrange light sources and their positions according to different types.
Bedrooms often have multiple functions in China, such as living room, study, dressing room and so on. Dressing requires uniform light to be illuminated from the upper and front of the person, so as to get a clear image in the mirror. Therefore, the light source cannot be placed behind the human brain. If you want to make up, you should also set auxiliary light on both sides, so that the hairs on the face can be clearly seen. Reading and writing requires a writing lamp. The indoor light can be darker and softer during sleep. But for those who have the habit of reading in bed before going to bed, it is best to adjust the brightness and angle of the bedside lamp. The simple way is to install two lights, one on and one off.
The living room has many functions, such as receiving guests to chat, watching TV and listening to music. For example, there is a small bar next to the family audio-visual center, so drinks are also here. Don't expect a chandelier to solve all the problems. When there are many people, you can use chandeliers and wall lamps to obtain comprehensive lighting and astigmatism. When two or three people talk, floor lamps or wall lamps can be used to partially illuminate the tea table in front of the sofa, rather than the people involved in the conversation themselves. When the audio-visual center is used, only a 3-watt small lamp is needed as the background lamp in the living room to obtain some weak lighting.
If the house has a lobby, it is worth decorating, because it can most affect one's mood. As soon as you step into the house, if the hall is bright and lively, people who work all day will suddenly feel that they have been immersed in the arms of the family and feel refreshed and tired. This requires the installation of embedded barrel ceiling lamps on the flat roof of the hall. When one is not enough, several can be installed, and the color is better. If you are an art loving family, you can make the walls and flat roofs of the lobby and corridor dark and embed several small lights, which makes people feel unfathomable, and stepping into the room is another cave immediately. Of course, although this is unique, it may not be acceptable to everyone, because most people are used to following the rules. It is better to set one kitchen lamp to be different from that of the other kitchen, and it is better to set up a ceiling lamp to fully illuminate the kitchen. Dining room is the place where people eat. Both East and West attach great importance to the lighting effect here.
Westerners pay attention to quiet dining, and the indoor light is softer and darker; China has always been proud of its exquisite cooking, which is absolutely inseparable from the appreciation of the color of the dishes, which requires that the lights must be bright. In order to give consideration to both, it is recommended to use stretchable suspension lamps. Not only can the telescopic line freely determine the height of the lamp, but its red or other beautiful color headlamp cover will also increase appetite. Residential bathtubs are usually placed in the bathroom, so the lighting of the bathroom should take into account both functions. When bathing, only simple global illumination is needed; When washing face and making up, it is necessary to illuminate the face with side light. When washing clothes, it is necessary to see whether the clothes in the washing machine are cleaned and local lighting is required. Therefore, only two lamps need to be installed in the bathroom. One is the main lamp, which can be wall lamp or ceiling lamp. 25-40 watts is enough.
The other is equipped with an 8-watt fluorescent lamp above the washbasin, and the newly listed h lamp or other lamps can also be used. The lighting for the elderly should be mainly bright. A little brighter can dispel the sense of loneliness and increase the sense of security. Generally, 40-60 watt incandescent lamps are enough. The lamps for children should be as lively as possible in shape, and their brightness can be determined according to the actual use function.
40 watts of desk lamp for reading and writing is enough. Do not use fluorescent lamp, because its invisible flicker with AC power supply will stimulate nerves. The game lights can be lit to illuminate the whole room and make the rich colors in the room more beautiful. When it comes to sleep, you can turn on a special 3-watt long bright light, which not only solves the problem of children's fear of the dark at night, but also solves the problem of convenient getting up in the middle of the night.
Lighting and lamps - the choice of a pair of sister lamps is often a difficult problem in decoration. Now there are many novel lamps in the market, round, square, flat, hanging, hanging, embedded, orange, milky white and transparent... Which one is suitable for 1 Although the shape of modern lamps and lanterns changes a lot, they are inseparable from three categories: antique, innovation and practicality. Some gorgeous and jewelled chandeliers, wall lamps with animal shapes, ceiling lamps with fine lines and luxurious decoration are all developed from the court lamps of the 18th century. These lamps are suitable for social occasions with large space and can bring a gorgeous and dazzling sense of luxury to the house. Other modern lamps with unique shapes, such as all kinds of spotlights, ox eye lamps and embedded downlights, belong to innovative lamps. There is also a kind of practical lamps, that is, ordinary fluorescent lamps, three primary color energy-saving lamps, writing desk lamps, floor lamps and bedside lamps belong to traditional common lamps.
When selecting this kind of lamps, we should try to pursue the overall design of the three series. Those who like magnificence should choose the first kind of colorful and elegant lamps; The pursuit of innovators can choose the second type of lamps with unique shapes; Practical lamps and lanterns are indispensable. When selecting, they have to move closer to the above choice, because the current practical lamps and lanterns are also differentiating into antique and innovation.
2. The color of lamps shall be subject to the color of the whole room. Because the lamp itself emits light, its color is more eye-catching. In order not to damage the overall color design of the whole room, we must pay attention to the coordination between the color of the lampshade and shell of the lamp and the color of the wall, furniture and curtains. What should be explained here is that the color light emitted by the lamp is different from the color of the object. The three primary colors of the object, red, blue and yellow, are mixed into black, while the three primary colors of the color light are added into gray, and the object is blue and yellow